Himachal Pradesh
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Rewalsar is natural and small wetland and is located in district Mandi of Himachal Pradesh at a distance of 24 km in the south west direction of Mandi on Mandi-Hamirpur highway at the height of 1360 mts(Avg.) amsl. The lake is shaped like a square with the shoreline of about 735 m. This area falls on the confluence of “Sikandara-Dhar and ‘Barkot’ ranges of sub-mountainous Himalaya between latitude 31°37’30” N and E. 76°49” E longitude. The place has series of small beautiful lakes, of which Rewalsar lake is the most beautiful and sacred. Total catchment area of Rewalsar wetland is 173 hactare. The main source of water for Rewalsar wetland is their internal water spring. Rewalsar is an important tourist destination and also one of the most famous sacred spots for Hindus, Buddhists and Sikhs as it is largely associated with serpent worshipping. Keeping view of its religious, cultural and ecological importance, the Ministry of Environment & Forests, GoI has declared Rewlsar wetland of the State under the National Wetland Conservation programme.
The climate of the area is of sub-tropical monsoonic type. The average precipitation at Rewalsar is 1690 mm and average maximum temperature is 33° C. The minimum temperature touches freezing point and some time snowfall occurs in the area. Broadly, four distinct seasons namely, winter (middle of December to February), summer (March to June), rainy (early July to the middle of September) and autumn (October to November) are present in Rewalsar. Winter is mild in low-lying areas, whereas it snows on high mountain ranges. Springs are warm and sunny. Rainy season is the wettest part of the year and characterized by high humidity. Summers are prickly hot during monsoon months.
The area is mostly hilly. The catchment's lithology is composedof middle Siwalik Group (Pliocene) of rocks comprising predominatly of fine grained, light colored sandstonewith gray siltstone and shale inter-layared. The letter two area often thicker than the former, indicating inermittent subsiding basin condition, their more weatherable natrue and intense tectonic activity; sadston layers occasionally stand out as resistant boulder within the weathered mass. The greenish gray-siltstone often show spheroidal or elephant skin weathering which weathers to soil.Fine specks of mica are seen in the siltstone Clayey soil is also comman and is not very deep. The major, tracw and (rare earth element)(REE) geochemistry of Rewalsar Wetland sediments supported by petrographic. Clay mineralogical studies have revealed that sediments have been derived from metamorphic source terrain. in the very vicinity of the wetland area,sandstone is seen dipping into the hill in north-west direction. The depression formed for the accumulation of water appears to have been caused by a strike slip fault that runs in NE-SW direction. On the whole, the rocks are soft and the strata are unstable, easily lending to the forces of denudation and erosion.
There is perennial outflow in one side of the lake which has been the source of irrigation for the immediate downstream families since the historical time. This economic value of agricultural productivity owing to the water body cannot be ignored. The wetland catchment also provides fuel and fodder for local habitants. Religious and historical Importance of the lake is of great attraction for pilgrims throughout the year.
Rewalsar wetland is surrounding by thick vegetation and mountains which is a store house of both floral and faunal biodiversity. Rewalsar has forest area is occupied by chir forest and scrub. The type of vegetation is sub-tropical type composed of khair, Shisham, Kachnar and chir stc. The cheif macrophytic genera in Rewalsar. lake are ; Nymphaea, Trapa, Ceratophyllum and Pharagmites in Rewalsar 262 species of Vascular plants belonging to 82 families and 220 genera ; of these one belong to gymnosperms and the rest to angiosperms, with B monocotyledonous spp.are found. Besides,47 genera of Phytoplankton are recorded of which 11 belonged to myxophyceae,18 each to Cglorophyacae and Bacillariophycsae respectively. Blue green algae also develop in large numbers in Rewalsar Wetland The faunal biodiversity of the area is rich. It has jackals, leopards,snakes, monitor-lizard, mongoose, monkeys, porcupine and barking dear. Indian coot, Brown coot, white Breasted kingfishers,Kalij pheasant,birds are recorded in the area. The wetland is rich in fish Fauna consisting of Channa marulius, C. straitus,C.punctius, Cyprinus carpio,Carrasius auratus, Catla caltla, Punctius ticto, P. sarana and Rasbora rasbra.

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